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    References

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    • U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center On-line References

      Allison, M. T. (1993). “Access and boundary maintenance: Serving culturally diverse populations.” Culture, conflict, and communication in the wildland-urban interface. A.W. Wert, D.J. Chavez, and A.W. Magill, ed., Westview Press, Boulder, CO, 99-107.

      Bass, J. M., Ewert, A., and Chavez, D. J. (1993). “Influence of ethnicity on recreation and natural environment use patterns: Managing recreation sites for ethnic and racial diversity,” Environmental Management 17, 523-529.

      Buck, R. C. (1978). “Boundary maintenance revisited: Tourist experience in an old order Amish community,” Rural Sociology 43, 221-234.

      Chavez, D. J. (1991). “Ethnic and racial group similarities and differences: A tool for resource managers.” Abstracts from the 1991 Symposium on Leisure Research. C. Sylvester and L. Caldwell, ed., National Recreation and Park Association, Alexandria, VA.

      Chavez, D. J. (1993). “Visitor perceptions of crowding and discrimination at two national forests in Southern California,” Research Paper PSW-RP- 216, USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, CA.

      Chavez, D. J. , Baas, J., and Winter, P. L. (1993). “Mecca Hills visitor research case study,” Report BLM/CA/ST-93-005-9560, Bureau of Land Management, Sacramento, CA.

      Chavez, D. J., and Winter, P. L. (1993). “Report for the Applewhite Picnic Area, Cajon Ranger District, San Bernadino National Forest,” USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, CA.

      Dragon, C. (1986). “Native American underrepresentation in national parks: Tests of marginality and ethnicity hypotheses,” Unpublished M.S. Thesis, University of Idaho Department of Wildland Management, Moscow, ID.

      Dunn, R. A. (1998). “African-American recreation at two Corps of Engineers projects: A preliminary assessment,” Natural Resources Technical Note REC-10, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

      Dunn, R. A. (1999). “Asian-American recreation at two Corps lakes in California: A Hmong case study,” Natural Resources Technical Note REC-12, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. View on-line or download nrrec12.exe.

      Dunn, R. A. (1999). “Hispanic American recreation at two Corps lakes in Texas and California,” Natural Resources Technical Note REC-11, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

      Dunn, R.A. (2002). "Managing for Ethnic Diversity: Recreation Facility and Service Modifications for Ethnic Minority Visitors," ERDC/EL TR-02-14. U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS. View Chapters 1-2 or Chapters 3-6 and Appendix A-D.

      Dunn, R. A., and Feather, T. D. (1998). “Native American recreation at Corps projects: Results of six focus groups,” Natural Resources Technical Note REC-09, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

      Dunn, R. A. and Quebedeaux, D. M. (1999). "Methodology for recreation data acquisition and evaluation for ethnic minority visitors to corps of engineers projects," Technical Report R-99-1, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS.

      Dwyer, J. F. (1994). “Customer diversity and the future demand for outdoor recreation,” General Technical Report RM-22, USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

      Dwyer, J. F., and Hutchison, R. (1990). “Outdoor recreation participation and preferences by black and white Chicago households.” Social science and natural resource recreation management. J. Vining, ed., Westview Press, Boulder, CO, 49-67.

      Eastman, C. (1991). “Community land grants: The legacy,” Social Science Journal 28, 101-117.

      Floyd, M. F. (1991). “Ethnic patterns in outdoor recreation participation: Effects of cultural and structural assimilation.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Science, College Station, TX.

      Floyd, M. F. (1998). “Getting beyond marginality and ethnicity: The challenge for race and ethnic studies in leisure research,” Journal of Leisure Research 20(1), 3-22.

      Floyd, M. F., and Gramann, J. H. (1993). “Effects of acculturation and structural assimilation in resource-based recreation: The case of Mexican Americans,” Journal of Leisure Research 25, 6-21.

      Floyd,M.F.,Shinew,K.J.,McGuire,F.A.,and Noe,N.P.(1994).“Race, class, and leisure activity preferences: Marginality and ethnicity revisited,” Journal of Leisure Research 26, 158-173.

      Frey, William H. (1998). “The diversity myth.” American Demographics 6/98, 39-43.

      Glazer,N.,andMoynihan,D.(1963).Beyond the melting pot. MIT and Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

      Gobster, P. H., and Delgado, A. (1992). “Ethnicity and recreation in Chicago’s Lincoln Park: In-park user survey findings.” Managing Urban Parks and High-Use Recreation Settings. P.H. Gobster, ed., General Technical Report NC-163, USDA Forest Service Northcentral Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN, 75-81.

      Gomez, E. (1999). "Reconceptualizing the relationship between ethnicity and public recreation: A proposed model." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, Department of Park, Recreation and Tourism Resources and Urban Affairs Programs. Short version

      Gordon, M. (1964). Assimilation into American life: The role of race, religion, and national origins. Oxford University Press, New York.

      Gramann, J. H. (1996). “Ethnicity, race, and outdoor recreation: A review of trends, policy, and research,” WES Miscellaneous Paper R-96-1, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

      Gramann, J. H., and Floyd, M. F. (1991). “Ethnic assimilation and recreation use of the Tonto National Forest,” Technical Report on file with the Wildland Recreation and Urban Culture Project, USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, CA.

      Gramann, J. H., Floyd, M. F., and Ewert, A. (1992). “Interpretation and Hispanic American ethnicity.” On interpretation: Sociology for interpreters of natural and cultural history. G.E. Machlis and D.R. Field, ed., Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, OR, 161-177.

      Gramann, J. H., Floyd, M. F., and Saenz, R. (1993). “Outdoor recreation and Mexican American ethnicity: A benefits perspective.”Culture, conflict, and communication in the wildland-urban interface. A.W. Ewert, D.J. Chavez, and A.W. Magill, ed., Westview Press, Boulder, CO, 69- 84.

      Henderson, J. E. (1995). “Plan of study for the Ethnic Culture and Corps Recreation Use Work Unit,” Unpublished Manuscript Prepared for Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Environmental Laboratory, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

      Hutchison, R. (1988). “A critique of race, ethnicity, and social class in recent leisure-recreation research,” Journal of Leisure Research 20, 10-30.

      Hutchison, R. (1992). “Hmong leisure and recreation activity.” Managing urban and high use recreation settings. P.H. Gobster, ed. General Technical Report NC-16, USDA Forest Service Northcentral Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN, 87-92.

      Irwin, P. N., Gartner, W. G., and Phelps, C. C. (1990). “Mexican American/Anglo cultural differences as recreation style determinants,” Leisure Sciences 12, 335-348.

      Knowlton, C. S. (1972). “Culture, conflict, and natural resources.” Social behavior, natural resources and the environment. W. Burch, Jr., N.H. Cheek, Jr., and L. Taylor, ed., Harper and Row, NewYork, 109-145.

      Krueger, R. A. (1988). “Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research.” Sage Publications, Inc., Newbury Park, CA.

      Lee, R. G. (1972). “The social definition of outdoor recreational places.” Social behavior, natural resources, and the environment. W.R. Burch, Jr., N.H. Cheek, Jr., and L. Taylor, ed., Harper and Row, NewYork, 68-94.

      Lynch, B. D. (1993). “The garden and the sea: U.S. Latino environmental discourse and mainstream environmentalism,” Social Problems 40, 108-124.

      Market Opinion Research. (1988). “Participation in outdoor recreation among American adults and the motivations which drive participation,” Report prepared for the President’s Commission on American Outdoors.

      McDonald, D., and McAvoy, L. (1997). “Native Americans and leisure: State of the research and future directions.” Journal of Leisure Research, 29(2), 145-166.

      McLemore, S. D. (1991). Racial and ethnic relations in America. Allyn and Bacon, Inc., Boston.

      Morgan,D.L.(1988).Focus groups as qualitative research. Qualitative Research Methods Series 16. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA.

      Outley, C. W. (1995). “The influence of perceived discrimination in determining recreation behavior of African Americans in Southern Illinois,” Presentation at the 19th Annual Graduate Research Symposium of the Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.

      Parks, H. B. (1988). A history of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

      Portes, A. (1984). “The rise of ethnicity: Determinants of ethnic perceptions among Cuban exiles in Miami,” American Sociological Review 49, 383-397.

      Russell, C. (1998). Racial and ethnic diversity: Asians, blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and whites. New Strategist Publications, Inc., Ithaca, NY.

      Schreyer, R., and Knopf, R. C. (1984). “The dynamics of change in outdoor recreation environments—some equity issues,” Journal of Park and Recreation Administration 2, 9-19.

      McGuire, F. A., O’Leary, J. T., Alexander, P. B., and Dottavio, F. D. (1987). “A comparison of outdoor recreation preference and constraints of black and white elderly,” Activities, Adaptations, and Aging 9, 95-104.

      Scott, D. (1993). “Use and non-use of public parks in Northeast Ohio: Differences between African-Americans and whites.” Proceedings of the 1993 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. G.A. Vander Stoep, ed., General Technical Report NE-185, USDA Forest Service Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Radnor, PA, 224-227.

      Shaull, S. L. (1993). “Family-related and nature-related recreation benefits among Anglo Americans and Hispanic Americans: A study of acculturation and primary structural assimilation,” Unpublished M.S. thesis, Texas A&M University Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, College Station, TX.

      Simcox, D. E., and Pfister, R. E. (1990). “Hispanic values and behavior related to outdoor recreation and the environment,” USDA Forest Service Contract Report, USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, CA.

      Stewart, D. W., and Shamdasani, P. N. (1990). Focus groups: Theory and practice. Applied Social Research Methods Series, Volume 20. Sage Publications, Newbury Park.

      Taylor, D. E. (1989). “Blacks and the environment: Toward an explanation of the concern and action gap between blacks and whites,” Environment and Behavior 21, 175-205.

      Templeton, J. F. (1994). The focus group: A strategic guide to organizing, conducting, and analyzing the focus group interview. McGraw-Hill, New York.

      Wallace, V. K., and Witter, D. J. (1992). “Urban nature centers: What do our constituents want and how can we give it to them?” Legacy 2(2), 20-24.

      Washburne, R. F. (1978). “Black under-participation in wildland recreation: Alternative explanations,” Leisure Sciences 1, 175-189.

      Washburne, R., and Wall, P. (1980). “Black-white ethnic differences in outdoor recreation,” Research Paper INT-29, USDA Forest Service Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.

      West, P. C. (1993). “The tyranny of metaphor: Interracial relations, minority recreation, and the wildland-urban interface.” Culture, conflict, and communication in the wildland-urban interface.A.W. Ewert, D.J. Chavez, and A.W. Magill, ed., Westview Press, Boulder, CO, 109-115.

      Williams, D. R., and Carr, D. S. (1993). “The sociocultural meanings of outdoor recreation places.” Culture, conflict, and communication in the wildland-urban interface. A.W. Ewert, D.J. Chavez, and A.W. Magill, ed., Westview Press, Boulder, CO, 209-219.