USACE establishes the National Water Safety Program Committee.
Six Ranger and Visitor Safety Study taskforces report on topics including: vehicle colors and markings, use of bulletproof vests, title 36, chemical-aerosol spray, incident reporting, and training.
Visitor Assistance Program is established (ER/EP 1130-2-550 Recreation Operations and Maintenance Guidance and Procedures Chapter 6)
Verbal Judo training enhances the PROSPECT Visitor Assistance course. Verbal Judo techniques help Park Rangers verbally communicate to gain voluntary visitor compliance with park rules.
Visitor Assistance program guidance clarifies vehicle standards, markings, and equipment (EC 1120-2-212). This guidance also clarifies training requirements for Park Managers and Rangers.
The pepper spray Pilot Program begins at the Belton-Stillhouse project in Texas (Fort Worth District).
The pepper spray Pilot Program expands to include all projects in the Southwestern Division.
The NRM Gateway website launches to improve communications and preserve institutional knowledge for the Community of Practice (CoP). The Visitor Assistance Program page is one of the first areas of content developed.
The Pepper Spray Program authorization includes nationwide implementation (EC 1130-2-214)
Pepper Spray training is incorporated into the Visitor Assistance Basic training course.
While on patrol Ranger Albert Chavez of Abiquiu Lake in the Albuquerque District, sees a truck at a day use area and notices an open door on a secured pump house. When Ranger Chavez approaches, two men come out. Chavez asks them what they were doing, and one man pulls out a revolver and fires two shots. One shot goes past Chavezs ear, the second into his right knee. He plays dead; the suspects walk past him and return to their truck.
USACE Park Ranger and Manager positions convert to the GS 0400 professional series as classified in the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Job Family Standard, Natural Resources Management and Biological Sciences Group.
A Park Ranger CoP Advisory Board is established, comprised primarily of NRM program subject matter experts. The Board serves as a cross-functional team of advisors with the goal of providing an ongoing support platform for the USACE Park Ranger Program.
The Park Ranger CoP section of the NRM Gateway website, developed with Board oversight, improves internal CoP communications.
Robert Davis, Wallace Halcomb, and Terry Martin of the Nashville District, surveying
Tim Dunn Lake Barkley, Nashville District
Wayner Lanier, Tim Dunn, Mike Looney, Angela Knoth, Bill Brown, Regina Puryear,Mark Dodson, Jeff Hancock, Toni Mansfield, Mike Daily
Ranger Bill Jackson at Lake Cumberland, Nashville District