This glossary defines terms and acronyms commonly used by the NRM community. If there is a term you couldn't find, please contact the Interim SME. We are looking for an SME who will keep the glossary current. If you would like more information about volunteering for that opportunity, please email the Gateway Principal Investigator.
If you have a Glossary submission, please email it to CorpsLakes@usace.army.mil
Accessible - The availability of a facility, program, or service to all persons regardless of any mobility, vision, hearing, learning, or other impairment.
Access Road - A road that permits vehicles to move between an existing public
thoroughfare and the recreation site or area.
Accessible Route - Firm and stable route as defined by most stringent applicable UA standards. As currently defined by both UFAS and ADAAG: A continuous unobstructed path connecting all accessible elements and spaces of a building or facility. Interior accessible routes may include corridors, floors, ramps, elevators, lifts, and clear floor space at fixtures. Exterior accessible routes may include parking access aisles, curb ramps, crosswalks at vehicular ways, walks, ramps, and lifts.
ABC-C - Army Benefit Center - Civilian. The system provides program information for health and life insurance, TSP, retirement, and survivorship. In addition to general program information, users can obtain personal information about current benefits coverage, as well as information regarding projected business transactions.
ACE-IT – Army Corps of Engineers Information Technology
ACPERS - Army Civilian Personnel System. This system interfaces with CEFMS and provides civilian personnel data for updating labor costs. Personnel actions are recorded in the system, including pay rates, tours of duty, assigned organization codes, etc. See also Career Development
ACTEDS - Acronym for the Army Civilian Training, Education and Development System designed to provide a "sequential, progressive and systematic approach to civilian training, education and development." NRM employees are covered by this system, which requires individual career development plans (Civilian Career Program for Engineers & Scientists, 1990). See also Career Development
APPMS - Automated Personal Property Management System. Logistics Management Office uses this system to account for and manage all Corps-owned personal property. This includes capitalized assets such as large equipment, vehicles, etc., and small items such as computers and calculators that must be managed.
AUPS - Automated User Permit System, a software program used to manage the collection of user fees and issuance of user fee permits at many NRM campgrounds prior to the requirement that all Class A campgrounds use the NRRS™. AUPS is still in use at some Class B campgrounds that are not in the NRRS™, as well as some project offices that sell Annual Day Use Passes, etc. See also AUPS
Accessible - The availability of a facility, program or service to all persons regardless of an mobility, vision, hearing, learning or other impairment. See also Accessibility
Acronyms, US Army Corps of Engineers - This is a database of acronyms commonly used by USACE.
Annual Pass - An annual pass allows the use of any Corps-operated boat launching ramp or swimming beach at any project for that calendar year. The pass may be purchased at day use areas having a staffed collection station, visitor centers, and at project offices. See also Recreation Use Fees
BMP - Best Management Practices.
BPAs - Blanket Purchase Agreements. These are agreements with vendors that allow buyers to make repetitive types of purchases over a period of time with a summarized bill sent by the vendor once a month. See also O&M Contracts
CA - Cooperative Agreement. See also Cooperative Agreements for Law Enforcement Services
CATT (Coach, Assist and Train Teams) - Provides operational support to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers field sites participating in the National Recreation Reservation Service (NRRS), utilizing the Park Suite campground management software. CATT provides support in those areas not contractually covered by ReserveAmerica such as hardware, operating system, communication, policy, etc.
CECW-HR - Office symbol of the Washington, D.C. office of the Human Resources Division of the Corps of Engineers.
CECW-ON - Office symbol of the Washington, D.C. office of the Natural Resources Management Branch of the Operations Division of the Corps of Engineers.
CEFMS - Corps of Engineers Financial Management System. CEFMS is not an accounting system, but a management system.
CISM (Critical Incident Stress Management) - CISM is a peer-driven stress management program that combines pre-crisis preparation, stress education and post-event response to help people recover more quickly from abnormally stressful job-related incidents and trauma, collectively known as “critical incidents.”
COE or Corps or USACE - Abbreviations for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
CoP – Community of Practice
Condition Indices - Numerical rating system associated with condition of a park.
Courtesy Dock - Loading dock provided to visitors for loading and unloading boating equipment and people.
CPAC - Civilian Personnel Advisory Center. The CPAC provides advice and assistance to managers, supervisors and employees about various personnel functions. See also Career Development
CPOC - Civilian Personnel Operations Center. Generally, the CPOC performs functions that do not require face-to-face contact with customers. These include recruitment, training management, automation management, classification, personnel actions processing, maintenance of personnel records, and processing employee benefits.
See also Career Development
CPOL - Army Civilian Personnel OnLine provides access to a wealth of information related to civilian personnel administration within the Army. See also Career Development
CSRS - Civil Service Retirement System. This covers most employees of the U.S. Government hired prior to January 1, 1984. CSRS employees are not covered by, nor do they contribute to, Social Security. Voluntary retirement eligibility is age 55 with 30 years of service, or age 60 with 20 years of service, or age 62 with 5 years of service.
CSRS-Offset - Civil Service Retirement System--Offset Plan. The Offset Plan "is essentially the Civil Service Retirement System, modified for employees who are mandatorily covered by Social Security but who chose to remain in the CSRS." This covers employees "rehired into Federal service on or after January 1, 1984, who have a break in service exceeding one year, but who, as of the date of their last separation from service, had at least 5 years of creditable civilian service." These employees contribute to Social Security and make a "small contribution" to the CSRS.
Cooperative Agreement - refers to any agreement between an outside organization and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers defining the functions and responsibilities of each party to the agreement.
Cooperating Association - refers to a legal entity, organized under state law, which enjoys a non-profit and tax-exempt status under Internal Revenue Service codes and which operates under the terms of a Cooperative Agreement with the Corps of Engineers.
CWIS NUMBERS - Civil Works Information System Numbers. This system at Headquarters assigns a unique code to each civil works project. This number is used for budgeting, accruing costs, and reporting the status of the project. The CWIS number is the project level work item code in CEFMS for a civil project.
CY - Calendar Year.
Challenge Cost-Sharing Program - Renamed Challenge Partnership Program
Challenge Partnership Program - The Challenge Partnership Program (formerly “challenge cost-sharing” as authorized by Section 225 of the Water Resources Development Act of 1992) provides opportunities for non-Federal public and private groups and individuals to contribute to and participate in the operation and/or management of recreation facilities and natural resources at Corps water resource development projects. Partnering with others provides a way to stretch the Corps of Engineers budget by sharing the cost of operating and/or managing recreation facilities and natural resources. Challenge partnerships differ from traditional cost-sharing programs.
Day Use Area - An area where multiple uses/activities are accessible during the day only.
DCPDS - Defense Civilian Personnel Data System is the centralized personnel database covering NRM employees. See also Career Development
DoD - Department of Defense.
Economic Effects Glossary
EMRRP - Ecosystem Management and Restoration Research Program. The EMRRP is a research program of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers that helps decision-makers evaluate and mitigate the environmental impacts of Corps water resource development activities at the ecosystem level.
Environmental Management System (EMS) - An organizational framework that consistently addresses the environmental effects that operations or processes may have onthe environment. The framework also strives for continuous improvement in an organization’s business practices regarding how they interact with the environment.
Engineer Circular (EC) - Contains policy that is parallel to an ER, i.e., directive in nature, with the difference that applicability will be transitory (one-time occurrence or otherwise temporary). Circulars will remain active for no more than two years from the date of issuance, and the expiration day may not be extended beyond the two years. See also Policy & Procedures
Engineer Manual (EM) - Contains technical guidance and directive/non-directive instruction criteria of a continuing nature concerned primary with engineering and design type projects. For this reason, most EMs are in the 1110 (Engineering and Design) series See also Policy & Procedures
Engineer Pamphlet (EP) - A standard EP contains functional or procedural information, instructional guidance needed to implement programs or systems directed in regulations. See also Policy & Procedures
Engineer Regulation (ER) - Contains policies, responsibilities and procedures of continuing nature, prescribed exclusively for the Corps of Engineers mission. See also Policy & Procedures
Standardizes and integrates methods of collecting, analyzing, forecasting, and presenting real-time information to decision makers for civil and military emergency operations Password Protected
Entrance Station - Building designed for use at the entrance to a park area for purposes such as fee collection, security, and visitor information.
ERDC - U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center
FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulation. The FAR was established to codify uniform policies for acquisition of supplies and services by executive agencies. It is issued and maintained jointly, under the statutory authorities granted to the Secretary of Defense, Administrator of General Services and the Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Statutory authorities to issue and revise the FAR have been delegated to the Procurement Executives in DOD, GSA, and NASA. See also O&M Contracts
FEM - The Facilities and Equipment Maintenance system is a computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) that provides the tools needed for managing the operation and maintenance of real property facilities and associated equipment and personal property. The program also provides purchasing, warehouse and parts inventory management, and other tools for integrated operations and maintenance management. FEM is a joint, Department of Defense (DoD) automated information system, selected by the DoD Joint Logistics Systems Center as the standard CMMS for managing and maintaining assets and equipment within DoD depot level maintenance activities. FEM is utilized at all Army and Air Force Depots and Navy Shipyards. USACE joined the joint DoD program in fiscal year 1999 and has been in service since 2001.
FERS - Federal Employees Retirement System, covering employees "first employed in the Federal Government on or after January 1, 1984, and those reemployed after January 1, 1984" who did not qualify for the CSRS-Offset. These employees contribute to Social Security and to the FERS fund. Voluntary retirement eligibility with unreduced benefits is age 62 with 5 years of service, age 60 with 20 years of service, or minimum retirement age (ranges from age 55-57 depending on year of birth) and 30 years of service.
Federal Enterprise Architecture - "The FEA is a business and performance-based framework to support cross-agency collaboration, transformation, and government-wide improvement. It provides OMB and the Federal agencies with a new way of describing, analyzing, and improving the Federal Government and its ability to serve the citizen." From http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/e-gov/fea
FTE – Full Time Equivalent, i.e., one man year
FTP – Full Time Permanent, i.e., employees working 40-hour/week schedule
FTT – Full Time Temporary, i.e., employee working 40-hour/week schedule on a temporary appointment
FTS – Full Time Seasonal, i.e., employee working 40-hour/week schedule on a seasonal appointment
FY - An acronym for Fiscal Year, the accounting period used by the federal government, which begins on 1 October and ends on 30 September.
FormFlow - The commercial software package used for the creation and use of Army electronic forms.
GD&S - Geospatial Data and Systems (GD&S) is an all-encompassing term that refers to data referenced (directly or indirectly) to a location on the earth and the systems that generate and process the data. Systems that employ geospatial data include Geograhic Information Systems (GIS), Land Information Systems (LIS), Remote Sensing or Image Processing Systems, Computer-Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) systems, Automated Mapping/Facilities Management (AM/FM) Systems, and other computer systems that employ or reference data using either absolute, relative, or assumed coordinates such as hydrographic surveying systems. See also GIS
GIS - Geographic Information System, an information system that is designed to work with data referenced by spatial or geographic coordinates. In other words, a GIS is both a database system with specific capabilities for spatially referenced data, as well as a set of operations for working [analysis] with the data.
GPS - A Global Positioning System is a satellite-based radionavigation system developed and operated by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). GPS permits land, sea, and airborne users to determine their three-dimensional position, velocity, and time 24 hours a day, in all weather, anywhere in the world with a precision and accuracy far better than other radionavigation systems available today or in the foreseeable future.
GSA - U.S. General Services Administration. Since 1949, GSA has housed federal workers and provided products and services to support the important work of government throughout the country. GSA does it by negotiating contracts that account for $40 billion of goods and services bought annually from the private sector.
Glass ceiling - As defined by the Department of Labor, "those artificial barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias" that keep qualified women and minorities "from advancing upward in their organization into management level positions". See also Career Development
Golden Access Passport - The Golden Access Passport is an entrance pass to national parks, national wildlife refuges, Forest Service, and Bureau of Land Management sites that charge entrance fees. It also provides a 50% discount on federal recreation use fees. It is a lifetime pass for citizens or permanent residents of the United States that are legally blind or permanently disabled. It may be obtained in person at any national park, national wildlife refuge, Corps of Engineers, Forest Service sites, or Bureau of Land Management offices. Proof of medically determined permanent disability or eligibility for receiving benefits under federal law must be shown. See also Recreation Use Fees
Golden Age Passport - The Golden Age Passport is an entrance pass to national parks, national wildlife refuges, Forest Service, and Bureau of Land Management sites that charge entrance fees. It also provides a 50% discount on federal recreation use fees. It is a lifetime pass for citizens or permanent residents of the United States that are age 62 or older. It may be purchased for $10 in person at any national park, national wildlife refuge, Corps of Engineers, Forest Service sites, or Bureau of Land Management offices. Proof of age must be shown. See also Recreation Use Fees
IA - Interagency Agreement. See also Memorandums of Understanding and Agreements
IBA - Individually Billed Accounts. The card used for official travel (TDY).
IDP - Individual Development Plan. The IDP is a career planning tool that outlines short-term and long-term goals along with the necessary training required to reach these goals. See also Career Development
Interpretive Facilities - Facilities that provide interpretive information to the public (i.e. bulletin board, kiosk, brochure rack or a visitor center).
IMD – Integrated Manning Document system administered by USACE Resource Management Office that tracks positions within USACE
IWR – Institute for Water Resources
JFTR - Joint Federal Travel Regulations. See also Travel & Per Diem
JOC (Job Order Contract) - A competitively awarded firm fixed price, indefinite quantity contract which consists of a collection of detailed task specifications encompassing most aspects of facilities engineering construction work. For each of the tasks listed in the contract, a unit of measure and a corresponding unit price are included. Offerors are required to propose two coefficients or multipliers (one for normal working hours and one for other than normal working hours). During contract execution the unit price listed in the contract is multiplied by the appropriate coefficient to determine the actual price of that item. Each job order required is broken down into these individual tasks of work, and a total price is developed based upon the government unit price and the contractor's multiplier(s). After agreement, a delivery order is issued for performance of the work. See also O&M Contracts
Lantern Hanger - A campsite amenity for hanging lanterns.
Long Vehicle - A bus, RV, or any vehicle pulling a trailer.
Loop Road - A circulation road that closes on itself.
MARKS - The Modern Army Recordkeeping System, Army Regulation 25-400-2 , prescribes the official filing system and records retention periods used by NRM offices. See also Administration
Master Plan (MP) - The MP is the basic document guiding Corps of Engineers responsibilities pursuant to Federal laws to preserve, conserve, restore, maintain, manage, and develop the project lands, waters, and associated resources. The MP deals in concepts, not in details of design or administration.
MIPR - Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request (currently a DD Form 448) is used to request another (person or office) to perform a specific task and to provide the funding for accomplishment of the task either on a reimbursable basis or by direct fund cite.
MOA - Memorandum of Agreement. See also Interagency Initiatives
MOU - Memorandum of Understanding. See also Interagency Initiatives
MP - Master Plan. Each civil works project must have an MP, which is the basic document guiding Corps responsibilities at the project, pursuant to Federal Laws. Specific guidance on format and content are contained in Chapter 3 of EP 1130-2-550. See also Project Master Plans and OMPs
MSC – Major Subordinate Command, synonymous with Division
MyPay - "The Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) implemented the myPay web-based system in March 2000. myPay provides each military service member and DoD civilian with a secure and convenient means for controlling and managing his/her pay account. Customers may now view tax statements as well as leave and earnings statements, and can make various pay changes on line 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
If you do not have a PIN for accessing myPay, you can obtain one via email by clicking on the 'New PIN' button on the myPay website at the web address shown above. A temporary PIN will be emailed to your official (e.g. AKO) email address. If you have any questions concerning myPay, please call our contact center toll free at 1-800-390-2348
Non-Peak Season - The recreation area operating season when visitation is historically lowest.
NRM - The Natural Resources Management Branch of the Operations Division of the Corps of Engineers.
NRM CDSC - The Natural Resources Management Career Development Steering Committee. See also Career Development
NRMS - The Natural Resource Management System, which was designed for collecting and analyzing annual recreation facility and natural resource management information at Corps projects, and was utilized for over 20 years. NRMS was phased out in 2000 with the development of OMBIL. See also OMBIL - Recreation and NRMS
NRMCDSC – Natural Resource Management Career Development Steering Committee
NRMOTS - Natural Resources Management On-line Training Source - an interactive web-based e-learning tool that teaches employees basic competencies. See also Career Development
NRPA - National Recreation and Parks Association. See also Career Development
NRRS - The National Recreation Reservation Service is a program for reserving a variety of recreation activities on federal lands. Currently, the Corps and the U. S. Forest Service have sites available on the NRRS system, which is operated by a contract with ReserveAmerica.
National Recreation Lakes Study Commission - Authorized by the Omnibus Parks and Land Management Act of 1996, P.L. 104-333, "to review the current and anticipated demand for recreational opportunities at federally-managed manmade lakes and reservoirs" and "to develop alternatives for enhanced recreational use of such facilities." The commission's final report was published in June 1999 and recommended that an interagency Federal Lakes Recreation Leadership Council be established to coordinate Commission recommendations; a National Recreation Lakes Demonstration Program; and assessments at Federal lakes to determine customer needs, infrastructure and facility needs, and natural resource capabilities.
O&M - For NRM, refers to Operations and Maintenance activities within civil works functions related to navigation, dredging, environmental stewardship, and recreation services at water resource projects.
OMB - U.S. Office of Management and Budget. The general functions of the Office of Management and Budget, as provided by statute and executive order, are to develop and execute the budget, oversee implementation of Administration policies and programs, advise and assist the President, and develop and implement management policies for the government.
OMBIL - An acronym for Operations & Management Business Information Link, a Web-based business information gateway that will allow Corps employees easy access to information about the Operations and Maintenance program. See also OMBIL - Recreation
OMP - Operational Management Plan. Each civil works project shall develop and implement an OMP to achieve objectives outlined in the Master Plan, per Chapter 3 of ER-1130-2-550. See also Project Master Plans and OMPs
OPM - The U.S. Office of Personnel Management. The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is the federal government's human resources agency. See also Career Development
OPM, Labor-Management Relations Glossary - A glossary of terms related to labor-management relations, compiled and maintained by OPM. See also Career Development
ORV - Off-road vehicles are any motorized vehicle designed for or capable of cross-country travel on or immediately over land, water, sand, snow, ice, marsh, swampland, or other natural terrain; except that such term excludes (1) any registered motorboat, (2) any military, fire, ambulance or law enforcement vehicle when used for emergency purposes and (3) any vehicle whose use is authorized by the Chief of Engineers, or his properly designated representative, under a permit, lease, license or contract. See also User of Off-Road Vehicles
Ordinary High Water Mark (OHW) - That line on the shore established by the fluctuations of water and indicated by physical characteristics such as a clear, natural line impressed on the bank, shelving, changes in the character of soil, destruction of terrestrial vegetation, the presence of litter and debris, or other appropriate means that consider the characteristics of the surrounding areas.
Park Attendant - Individual(s) who usually reside in the park and are designated as the park visitor’s contact for fee collection, information, security, or emergency purposes.
Peak Season - The recreation area operating season when visitation is historically the highest and all of the recreation areas and facilities are open to public use.
PARC - Principal Assistant Responsible for Contracting. The PARC office works to ensure best procurement and contracting practices are followed that support the attainment of the vision laid out by the Chief of Engineers.
PDT – Project Delivery Team
Project Management Business Process (PMBP) - The business process for execution of all work accomplished by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
PR&C - Purchase Request and Commitment. A request for goods or services with an estimated price and a funding source. The purchase request becomes a commitment after it has been approved and certified. PR&Cs are required for contractual requests, labor, facility services, Government orders (outgoing MIPRs), etc. See also Corps of Engineers Financial Management System (CEFMS)
PRIP - Plant Replacement and Improvement Program. This program addresses acquisition, operation, maintenance, and repair of civil works lands, structures, and other plant which are expected or required to serve more than one civil works project and/or multiple civil works appropriations that meets current capitalization criteria. See also Acquisition of Plant, Ownership & Financial Management
Policy Letters - Historically, policy letters (memorandums) were issued to provide guidance on a variety of issues. Beginning in 1999, publishing policy letters was prohibited; thus, all "policy letters" since 1999 are now Engineer Circulars (ECs). All CECW-O policy letters from 1996 and earlier were absorbed in the new round of the ER/EP regulations and pamphlets. See also Policy & Procedures
Project Delivery Team (PDT) - Cross-functional team that is part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Project Management Business Process.
PTP – Part Time Permanent, i.e., employee, working less than 40-hours per week
PTT – Park Time Temporary, i.e., employee working less than 40-hours per week on temporary appointment
RAMP - The Recreation Area Modernization Program addresses ways to renovate and update key Corps managed recreation areas to meet the needs of present users, underserved populations, and future generations.
REMIS - Real Estate Management Information System. This system interfaces with CEFMS and is used to manage the real property (land, buildings, dams, etc.) owned by the District.
RESUMIX - Army resume builder - Trade name of the new automated referral system that is being deployed throughout the Department of Defense. To begin with, it replaces the SF-171, OF 612, KSA's and other supplemental forms with a simple two-page resume. Once the resumes are processed into RESUMIX, applicants can self-nominate for advertised vacancies by fax or e-mail. See also Career Development
RLAT - The Recreation Leadership Advisory Team is comprised of representatives from projects, Districts, and Divisions, and has been formed to support strategic planning for the recreation business program.
RMO – Resource Management Office
RMSP - The Recreation Management Support Program includes research and other functions needed to support the management of recreation resources at Corps water resources projects.
RPPII - Recreation Program Performance Improvement Initiative. The RPPII will produce comprehensive, consistent process and procedure to evaluate the current performance status of the Corps recreation program at the project or recreation area level; identify opportunities for improvement; select an appropriate, effective strategy to improve performance; and to evaluate the results upon implementation.
ROAR - Resumix On-line Applicant Response. ROAR is a Web-based application that provides application and referral status information to applicants. By entering their social security number, applicants will be able to see exactly which positions their application has been reviewed for, whether or not they were found qualified or not qualified, and if referred and not selected, who was selected for the position. See also Career Development
Service Road - Normally a one-lane restricted-use road for maintenance, delivery of supplies to facilities, or to meet UA requirements.
Sewage Treatment - The removal of harmful solids, biological matter, etc. by such methods as sewage lagoon, septic system, municipal treatment system, etc.
Sign Standards Program - A mandatory program of the Corps of Engineers that specifies formats, colors, and safety legends for signs at all Corps facilities. Adhering to the Corps Sign Standards Program ensures that our signs are consistent throughout the country, identifying the Corps as a "brand" that can be counted on for service, reliability, and value. The program also ensures that our signs protect the safety of our navigation users, recreational visitors, and employees.
SME - Subject Matter Expert. See also Content SMEs
SOARS - Standard On-line Applicant Response System. See also Career Development
SOP - Standard Operating Procedures
SOS - Standard Organizational Structure refers to the projects-based organizational structure that a 1994 directive from Corps of Engineers Headquarters required all Corps Operations Divisions nationwide to adopt.
STAIRS - Standard Automated Inventory and Referral System. STAIRS is an automated inventory and referral system that uses a commercial off-the-shelf software product called Resumix, and other information systems technology such as scanning, optical character recognition, artificial intelligence, interactive voice response (IVR), and the Internet. It eliminates most paper and many manual processes involved in the acceptance and referral of internal and external candidates for positions. See also Career Development
Stakeholders - Parties who may be affected by agency decisions and actions (i.e., user groups, elected officials, commercial interests).
Standard - Widely accepted practice that allows for regional or specific difference.
Sustainable Design and Development (SD&D) - SD&D is the design, construction, operation, and reuse/removal of the built environment (infrastructure and buildings) in an environmentally and energy-efficient manner. The main principle of sustainable design is to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
TAPES - Total Army Performance Evaluation System. TAPES is used to evaluate civilian employee performance. See also Career Development
TSP - Thrift Savings Plan
Turnaround - An area where a vehicle can maneuver to travel in the opposite direction from which it was originally oriented.
Universal Access (UA) - The availability of a facility, program or service to integrate all persons, regardless of any mobility, vision, hearing, learning or other impairment to assure all persons have the opportunity to achieve similar experiences. See also Accessibility
Utility Pedestal - Provides in one unit one or all of the following features: electrical outlets, lighting, television, telephone, and individual metering.
VERS - Visitation Estimation and Reporting System.